Prayer has integrals and recommended matters (sunnahs). The integrals are those matters that are part of the prayer and, if not done the prayer is invalid. The recommended matters are the rewardable matters the leaving out of which does not invalidate the prayer. They are done following in the footsteps of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.
The integrals of prayer are seventeen (17):
1- To have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer and of its obligation when obligatory, and to specify the prayer which is performed for a particular reason or time.
2- To say Allahu Akbar hearing oneself while having the intention in the heart.
3- To stand (qiyam) for the obligatory prayer, when able. If unable, one prays sitting. If unable, one prays lying one one’s side. If unable, one prays lying on one’s back.
4- To recite the Fatihah, including:
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم
Also, doubling the letters that must be doubled, in order and succession without lengthy interruption, articulating its letters properly, and avoiding the error which breaches the meaning, such as saying (an^amtu) instead of (an^amta). It is prohibited to commit an error that does not breach the meaning. However, it does not invalidate the prayer [unless done intentionally].
5- To bow until one’s palms could reach one’s knees (ruku^).
6- To remain motionless in ruku^ for the duration of saying subhan Allah (tuma’ninah).
7- To straighten up after ruku^ (i^tidal).
8- To remain motionless in i^tidal for the duration of saying subhan Allah (tuma’ninah).
9- To prostrate (perform sujud) twice by putting all or part of one’s uncovered forehead on one’s praying ground, with one’s lower body (buttocks) higher than one’s upper part, and putting part of one’s knees, the inside of one’s hands and the bottom of one’s toes on the ground.
10- To have tuma’ninah in prostration (sujud).
11- To sit between the two prostrations.
12- To have tuma’ninah in this sitting.
13- To sit for saying the last tashahhud, the Salatu ^alan-Nabiyy and the closing salam.
14- To say the last tashahhud. The full tashahhud is:
التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لله، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُه، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِين، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلهَ إِلاَّ الله وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله.
At-Tahiyyatul-mubarakat, as–Salawatut–tayyibatu lillah. As-Salamu ^alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. As-Salamu ^alayna wa ^ala ^ibadillahis–salihin. Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah
- To say the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy. The minimum is: Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad. It is better to say the full Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah.
16- To say the closing salam. The minimum is As-Salamu ^alaykum.
17- To observe the order. To intentionally perform the integrals of prayer out of order invalidates the prayer. An example is if one intentionally prostrated before bowing (ruku^). If one forgets (to perform) an integral, one must return to perform it unless one has reached that same integral or what is after it in the next or subsequent rak^ah. In such a case, what was performed in-between is cancelled. An example is of one did not remember leaving our ruku^ except after having performed the ruku^ or prostration of the subsequent rak^ah. In such a case, what is between the missing ruku^ and the performed ruku^ is cancelled, and what is after this performed ruku^ is the continuation of the rak^ah.
Recommendations of Prayer:
There are many recommended (sunnah) matters during prayer and among them are:
- Placing the right hand over the left above the belly button and under the chest.
- Reciting the du^a’ of iftitah before reciting the Fatihah in the first rak^ah only.
- Reciting a Surah after the Fatihah in the first two rak^ahs.
- Saying Allahu Akbar upon straightening and bending.
- Saying subhana Rabbiyal-^adhim, three times during bowing (ruku^).
- Saying sami^allahu liman hamidah, during the straightening after bowing (i^tidal).
- Saying subhana Rabbiyal-a^la, three times during the prostration (sujud).
· Saying Allahumma ghfir li warhamni wahdini wa ^afini warzuqni during the sitting in between the two prostrations.
- Reciting the Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah after the final tashahhud.
- Adding wa rahmatullah during the final salam. Hence, one says: As-Salamu ^alaykum wa rahmatullah.
- Saying As-salamu ^alaykum a second time and turning to the right side during the first one and to the left side during the second one.
1. Give the definition of the integrals of prayer?
2. When is the intention made? What must one’s intention be when praying Dhuhr?
3. If one is unable to pray standing, what must one do? If one is unable to sit?
4. What are the matters to which one must pay attention when reciting the Fatihah?
5. What is ruku^? What is meant by tuma’ninah?
6. What is meant by i^tidal?
7. How does one perform sujud? How many times does one do sujud during a single rak^ah?
8. State the complete final tashahhud?
9. What is the minimum of the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy? What is the minimum salam?
10. What does keeping the order mean?
11. What is recommended to recite before the Fatihah?
12. What is recommended to recite after the Fatihah? In what rak^ahs?
13. What is recommended to say during ruku^? During i^tidal?
14. What is recommended to say during sujud? During the sitting between the two sujuds?
15. List some of the other recommended matters during prayer.